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C# TUTORIALS

LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION
Welcome to this C# tutorial. With the introduction of the .NET framework, Microsoft included a new language called C# (pronounced C Sharp). C# is designed to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language, borrowing key concepts from several other languages, most notably Java. C# could theoretically be compiled to machine code, but in real life, it's always used in combination with the .NET framework. Therefore, applications written in C#, requires the .NET framework to be installed on the computer running the application. While the .NET framework makes it possible to use a wide range of languages, C# is sometimes referred to as THE .NET language, perhaps because it was designed together with the framework. C# is an Object Oriented language and does not offer global variables or functions. Everything is wrapped in classes, even simple types like int and string, which inherits from the System.Object class. C# (pronounced as see sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure. C# is built on the syntax and semantics of C++, allowing C programmers to take advantage of .NET and the common language runtime. C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version is C# 5.0, which was released on August 15, 2012.
What is Stucture of C# Program

// Namespace Declaration

using System;

class Pragim
{
    public static void Main()
        // Write to console
        Console.WriteLine ("Hello Project Code"); 
    }
}

Understand the purpose of using System declaration - The namespace declaration, using System, indicates that you are using the System namespace. If  you omit the using System, declaration, then you have to use the fully qualified name of the Console class. A namespace is used to organize your code and is collection of classes, interfaces, structs, enums and delegates. We will discuss about namespaces in detail in a later session.


Purpose of Main() method - Main method is the entry point into your application.
Running Process Of C# Program


When the C# program is executed, the assembly is loaded into the CLR, which might take various actions based on the information in the manifest. Then, if the security requirements are met, the CLR performs just in time (JIT) compilation to convert the IL code to native machine instructions. The CLR also provides other services related to automatic garbage collection, exception handling, and resource management. Code that is executed by the CLR is sometimes referred to as "managed code," in contrast to "unmanaged code" which is compiled into native machine language that targets a specific system. The following diagram illustrates the compile-time and run-time relationships of C# source code files, the .NET Framework class libraries, assemblies, and the CLR.
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