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What is CSS / How to use CSS / Why use CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a language for specifying how documents are presented to users. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets A document is a collection of information that is structured using a markup language HTML was never intended to contain tags for formatting a document. HTML was intended to define the content of a document, like:

<h1>This is a heading</h1>

<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

When tags like </font>, and color attributes were added to the HTML 3.2 specification, it started a nightmare for web developers. Development of large web sites, where fonts and color information were added to every single page, became a long and expensive process. To solve this problem, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) created CSS. In HTML 4.0, all formatting could be removed from the HTML document, and stored in a separate CSS file. All browsers support CSS today.
When a browser displays a document, it must combine the document's content with its style information.
It processes the document in two stages:

1.   The browser converts the markup language and the CSS into a structure called the DOM (Document Object Model).
 The DOM represents the document in the computer's memory.
 It combines the document's content with its style.

2.   The browser displays the contents of the DOM.
 A markup language uses elements to define the document's structure.
 You mark an element using tags, which are strings beginning with '<' and ending with '>'.
 An element can have a start tag, which is just the name of the element, inside '< >', and an end tag, which has the element name with a '/' after the '<'.
 Depending on the markup language, some elements have only a start tag, or only a tag where the '/' comes after the name.
 An element can be a container, with other elements between its start tag and end tag.
 A DOM has a tree-like structure. Each element and run of text in the markup language becomes a node in the tree structure. DOM nodes are not containers. Instead, they can be parents of child nodes


  Use CSS to define styles for your documents, including the design, layout and variations in display for different devices and screen sizes.
  You can place your CSS in the <head> of a document with an embedded style sheet, or attach a separate file that defines your styles with an external   style sheet.
 To link an external style sheet to your document, you'll simply add a link to the style sheet in the of the document.
An external style sheet has many advantages. Keeping the styles seprate from your HTML content:
 • Helps avoid duplication
 • Makes maintenance easier
 • Allows you to make a site-wide change in one place

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